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Status: Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Date:Thursday 9 November 2017
Type:Silhouette image of generic DH8D model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
de Havilland Canada DHC-8-402Q Dash 8
Operated by:Jazz Aviation
On behalf of:Air Canada Express
Registration: C-GYJZ
MSN: 4524
First flight: 2016-05-03 (1 year 6 months)
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW150A
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 52
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 56
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Repaired
Location:Toronto City-Billy Bishop Airport, ON (YTZ) (   Canada)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Domestic Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, QC (YUL/CYUL), Canada
Destination airport:Toronto City-Billy Bishop Airport, ON (YTZ/CYTZ), Canada
A DHC-8-402 aircraft operated by Jazz Aviation, was conducting Air Canada Express flight 7977 from Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport to Toronto City Airport, Canada.
At about 20:50, while on approach to runway 26 at Toronto City Airport, the aircraft experienced turbulence. As a result, the airspeed fluctuated rapidly during the approach.
Jazz standard operating procedures (SOPs) for stable approaches allow for a deviation of -5 to +10 knots from the planned approach speed once the aircraft is below 500 feet above ground level (AGL) on approach. However, the speed of the occurrence aircraft’s approach varied from 119 to 141 knots. Because the speed deviations resulted from momentary wind gusts, the flight crew considered the approach to be stable.
Once the aircraft was below 100 feet AGL on approach, it encountered momentary wind shear as a result of a wind gust, causing its airspeed to decrease. The aircraft touched down and the pilots reacted by advancing the power levers to a maximum of 42.5% and 40% on the left and right engines, respectively.
The airplane was then caught in a wind shear, causing the airspeed to increase. The power levers were retarded through the flight idle gate position to the propeller discing detent position. However, the momentary increase in torque and airspeed caused the aircraft to become airborne again, up to 4.5 feet above the runway, for about 2.75 seconds.
The propeller blade angles moved through the ground-idle range into the disc position, which caused a significant loss of lift. The wind shear decreased, and the combined reduction in lift resulted in the aircraft firmly contacting the runway.
The vertical loads on landing exceeded 5.5g, which is the force at which both flight recorders stop simultaneously. Subsequently, the FDR caution light illuminated. The aircraft then taxied to the gate as normal.
Following consultation with the operator’s maintenance via telephone, the flight crew conducted a visual inspection of the aircraft; no abnormalities were detected. It was then decided that a hard landing maintenance inspection was not required, and the aircraft was dispatched under MEL authority for the FDR caution light that remained illuminated. After the departure on the return flight to Montreal, the flight crew requested that the aircraft be inspected on arrival due to a potential hard landing. When maintenance personnel in Montreal brought the aircraft into the hangar, airframe damage to the aft right fuselage and the right main landing gear was discovered.

Probable Cause:

No probable cause statement was published by TSB Canada in this limited-scope, fact-gathering investigation.

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 242 days (8 months)
Accident number: A17O0243
Download report: Final report
Language: English

Heavy landing
Runway mishap

» TSB A17O0243

METAR Weather report:
01:24 UTC / 20:24 local time:
CYTZ 100124Z AUTO 30021G29KT 9SM -RA FEW036 SCT055 SCT067 OVC098 02/M03 A2992 RMK SLP135

02:00 UTC / 21:00 local time:
CYTZ 100200Z AUTO 31021G32KT 9SM FEW030 SCT080 01/M05 A2996 RMK PRESRR SLP150

Follow-up / safety actions
The actions that Jazz took to prevent a similar occurrence included:
- providing additional training on how to recognize hard landings,
- strengthening and clarifying procedures and guidance associated with suspected or actual hard landings,
- adding a warning within flight crew guidance to inform crews of the risk of a hard landing if a landing is continued following a bounce with the power levers at flight idle or disc, and
- conducting a review of flight data analysis practices and effectiveness as they relate to preventing a departure when the aircraft’s airworthiness is concerned.


photo of DHC-8-402Q-Dash-8-C-GYJZ
accident date: 09-11-2017
type: de Havilland Canada DHC-8-402Q Dash 8
registration: C-GYJZ

This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, QC to Toronto City-Billy Bishop Airport, ON as the crow flies is 489 km (306 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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