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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 227838
Last updated: 14 October 2021
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Date:25-JUL-2019
Time:13:05
Type:Silhouette image of generic BCS3 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Airbus A220-300
Owner/operator:Swiss International Air Lines
Registration: HB-JCM
MSN: 55030
Fatalities:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 120
Other fatalities:0
Aircraft damage: Minor
Category:Serious incident
Location:Perrigny-sur-Armançon -   France
Phase: En route
Nature:Passenger - Scheduled
Departure airport:Genève-Cointrin Airport (GVA/LSGG)
Destination airport:London-Heathrow Airport (LHR/EGLL)
Investigating agency: NTSB
Narrative:
On July 25, 2019, at about 13:05 local time, Swiss International Air Lines flight LX348, an Airbus A220-300, equipped with two Pratt &Whitney (P&W) PW1524G-3 turbofan engines experienced a No. 1 (left) engine failure while climbing through flight level 320. The flight crew followed quick reference handbook procedures and attempted to shutdown the No. 1 engine, but the engine had already been shutdown by the electronic engine control (EEC). The crew diverted to Paris-Charles de Gaulle International Airport (CDG), France and made an uneventful single engine landing. A post flight examination of the engine revealed a hole in the low pressure compressor (LPC) case and the LPC stage 1 integrally bladed rotor (IBR) had separated and was missing. The thrust reverser exhibited impact damage on the outer barrel, most concentrated on the left thrust reverser assembly, but there was no evidence of high energy radial uncontainment through the thrust reverser/nacelle structure. There were no passenger or crew injuries reported.
In accordance with ICAO Annex 13, the NTSB accepted the delegation of this investigation from the French BEA.

There was a total of three PW1524G-3 and one PW1521G-3 LPC stage 1 IBR separations between July 25, 2019 and February 12, 2020. This incident was the first of the four PW1500G series LPC stage 1 IBR failures.


Probable Cause and Findings
A No. 1 (left) engine low pressure compressor (LPC) stage 1 integrally bladed rotor (IBR) separation due to a high cycle fatigue crack (HCF) that originated at the runout of an airfoil leading edge root radius. The HCF crack developed as a result of a mechanically coupled LPC stage 3 and stage 1 IBR mode excitation and blade flutter response. The excitation was driven by an acoustic tone generated by turbulent airflow passing over the 2.5 bleed valve duct cavity while the engine was operating at high speeds in specific flight conditions. A primary contributor to the failure mode was an electronic engine control (EEC) software update that changed the LPC vane schedule and increased the likelihood of LPC stage 1 IBR blade flutter onset within the engine operating range.

Sources:

NTSB : https://app.ntsb.gov/pdfgenerator/ReportGeneratorFile.ashx?EventID=20190801X04456&AKey=1&RType=Prelim&IType=IA
https://data.ntsb.gov/Docket?ProjectID=99980

Accident investigation:
cover
  
Investigating agency: NTSB
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 7 months
Download report: Final report
Location


Images:

Photo of HB-JCM courtesy AirHistory.net


Zürich (LSZH / ZRH)
10 August 2020; (c) Pat


Figure: NTSB


LPC Module (Photo: NTSB)

Revision history:

Date/timeContributorUpdates
02-Aug-2019 21:39 Captain Adam Added
08-Feb-2021 17:57 Aerossurance Updated [Source]
08-Feb-2021 17:58 Aerossurance Updated [Location, Departure airport, Destination airport]
07-Mar-2021 13:22 harro Updated [Location, Phase, Departure airport, Destination airport, Narrative, Category, Accident report, Photo]
07-Mar-2021 13:25 harro Updated [Total occupants, Photo]

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