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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 230785
Last updated: 13 January 2022
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Type:Silhouette image of generic T38 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Northrop T-38C Talon
Owner/operator:25th FTSqn USAF (25th FTSqn United States Air Force)
Registration: 65-10395
MSN: N5814
Fatalities:Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2
Other fatalities:0
Aircraft damage: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Enid-Vance AFB (END), OK -   United States of America
Phase: Landing
Departure airport:Enid-Vance AFB, OK (END/KEND)
Destination airport:Enid-Vance AFB, OK (END/KEND)
Investigating agency: USAF AIB
Two Northrop T-38C Talon aircraft collided during an attempted formation landing on Runway 35 Center at Vance AFB, OK, USA.
Mishap Student Pilot 1 (MSP1) and Mishap Instructor Pilot 1 (MIP1) flew the local student formation training mission in Mishap Aircraft 1 (MA1), tail number 65-0395. Mishap Student Pilot 2 (MSP2) and Mishap Instructor Pilot 2 (MIP2) flew in Mishap Aircraft 2 (MA2), 67-4950, in direct support. Both aircraft were assigned to the 25th Flying Training Squadron (25 FTS), 71st Flying Training Wing. MIP1 was assigned to the 5th Flying Training Squadron as an Active Guard Reserve officer who flew with the 25 FTS. MIP2 was assigned to the 25 FTS. MSP1 and MSP2 were assigned to the 71st Student Squadron and flew with the 25 FTS.
Immediately after touchdown, MA1, flying in the left wing position, became briefly airborne, rolled rapidly to the right, then touched down once more in a right bank. MA1 entered a skid and crossed the runway centerline from left to right toward MA2. MA1 lifted off the runway again then struck MA2 with its right main landing gear. The collision caused MA1 to roll over the top of MA2 then impact the ground in a nearly inverted attitude, fatally injuring MIP1 and MSP1.
MA1 slid approximately 700 feet before coming to a stop in a grassy area. Following the collision with MA1, MA2 departed the prepared surface of the runway, remained upright, travelled through the grass and came to a stop. MIP2 and MSP2 shut down and safely egressed their aircraft.

The Board President found by a preponderance of the evidence the causes of the mishap were MIP1 failing to take control of MA1 as a precarious situation developed and MSP1 subsequently making an inappropriate flight control input. During the landing sequence, MSP1 prematurely initiated an aerodynamic braking maneuver (aerobrake) immediately after MA1 initially touched down, causing MA1 to lose contact with the runway surface. Almost simultaneously, MSP1 applied and held right rudder in an attempt to steer MA1 away from the left edge of the runway.
MSP1ís use of rudder under these conditions--airborne, configured for landing and at an increased angle of attack--caused MA1 to roll and yaw to the right and placed MA1 on a collision course with MA2. The Board President found MIP1 could not have successfully prevented a collision after MSP1ís rudder input had taken effect, but that MIP1 would have already intervened to take control of MA1 had he made an accurate real-time risk assessment in the preceding moments.
Additionally, the Board President found the following factor substantially contributed to the mishap: MSP1 lacked an effective visual scan during the formation approach. Due to his focus on MA2, MSP1 did not adequately crosscheck his runway alignment prior to touchdown. Instead, he used rudder in an attempt to steer MA1 as his premature aerobrake lifted the weight from MA1ís wheels after MA1 initially touched down.


Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: USAF AIB
Status: Investigation completed
Download report: Final report

Revision history:

21-Nov-2019 17:50 gerard57 Added
21-Nov-2019 17:55 gerard57 Updated [Total fatalities, Total occupants, Other fatalities, Location, Source, Narrative]
21-Nov-2019 18:01 gerard57 Updated [Aircraft type]
21-Nov-2019 18:20 RobertMB Updated [Aircraft type, Total fatalities, Total occupants, Other fatalities, Location, Departure airport, Source, Narrative]
21-Nov-2019 18:27 RobertMB Updated [Location]
21-Nov-2019 18:48 RobertMB Updated [Location]
21-Nov-2019 22:23 Iceman 29 Updated [Embed code]
03-May-2020 11:16 harro Updated [Registration, Phase, Destination airport, Source, Narrative, Accident report, ]
04-May-2020 20:54 Aerossurance Updated [Source]
14-May-2020 06:27 Anon. Updated [Source]
18-Oct-2020 07:03 rvargast17 Updated [Time, Registration, Cn, Operator, Accident report]
19-Nov-2020 10:19 Sycak Updated [Operator, Location, Accident report, Operator]
13-Jan-2022 18:05 TB Updated [Location, Embed code]

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